Tag Archives: DRDO
Promise of Small Satellites for National Security
Author: Rajaram Nagappa
To read the complete report click here
To cite: Nagappa, Rajaram. The Promise of Small Satellites for National Security. NIAS Report No. 33-2015. Bangalore: International Strategic and Security Studies Programme, National Institute of Advanced Studies, December 2015, available at http://isssp.in/promise-of-small-satellites-for-national-security/
India is one of the few spacefaring nations having demonstrated capability in both launch vehicle and satellite domains. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) functioning under the Department of Space is the responsible agency and has established the capability to plan and implement end-to end missions. The main thrust of ISRO is aimed at carrying out satellite-based applications for societal benefits.
These include satellite missions for communication, earth observation, meteorology and regional navigation. ISRO also carries out scientific missions, deep space missions and offers commercial launch services. Technology improvements have been steadily incorporated and in the earth observation satellites, better than one metre resolution has been achieved. Because of the dual use nature of space applications, the security services in the country have derived information useful their purpose from the ISRO space programmes.
Among the launch vehicles, the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) is operational and has a good track record. The Geosynchronous Launch Vehicle (GSLV) should also be reaching operational status shortly and while the GSLV Mk-3 is still in the development stage. ISRO is a civilian organisation and very rightly prioritizes its mandated tasks. Consequently, the space services currently do not cater to the needs of military space, which are evolving now. Though ISRO has the technical capability, there are capacity constraints in both satellite building and launch services.
Envisaged military space requirements will include exclusive communication satellites, electronic intelligence satellites (ELINT) and constellation of optical and radar imaging satellites for continuous intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) activities. Small satellites are playing an important role in space applications. They are faster to build, are cost effective and better as they benefit from the use of latest technologies. Small satellite platforms can be adapted for military missions involving optical and radar imaging applications with good resolution as also for ELINT operations. Many examples of international practices bear this out. For increasing the launch frequency, a small satellite launch vehicle can be configured using stages of the Agni missiles and/or ISRO solid rocket stages. Such a launch vehicle would be capable of placing a satellite of mass 350 kg in a nearly circular 500 km polar orbit – quite adequate for military space missions.
The report surveys the small satellite capabilities to meet military space requirement. Use of available standard small satellite buses is suggested to cut down the development time. Major involvement of industry in both satellite and small launch vehicle realization and integration services is suggested to overcome the capacity constraint. It is also suggested that advantage be taken of mobility and different launch locations to carry out the flight missions.
Evolution of Solid Propellant Rockets in India, DESIDOC, 2014, pp. xx+201, ISBN: 978-81-8651-451-1
Author: Rajaram Nagappa
To order this book please contact
Ms. Anitha Sarvanan at the Monographs Division, DESIDOC
To read the Introduction and Chapter One click here
Historical narration of technological achievements is more an exception than the rule in India. The narration in respect of rocket development in the country generally follows this trend with a few notable exceptions covering the developments in the Indian Space Programme. The development of defence rockets has hardly been touched upon. Propulsion forms a major subsystem of the space launch vehicles and missiles, and today, India boasts of a significant capability and capacity in this discipline.
The solid propellant rocket technology in India is essentially home-grown and has found wide application and adaptation in sounding rockets, launch vehicles, and ballistic missiles. While the requirements of solid propellant rockets for the space programme have reached a maturation phase, the requirement of solid propellant rockets for missile applications are diverse in their characteristics, and performance needs continue on a demand and development trajectory.
This book highlights the development of solid propellant rockets and the main solid rocket subsystems used in the space programme and ballistic missiles with emphasis on the indigenous nature of development.
Table of Contents
|List of Acronyms||xvii|
|Chapter 1: The Beginning||5|
|Chapter 2: The Advent of Solid Rockets to Aid Space Research||9|
|Chapter 3: The Beginning of Solid Rocketry in Thumba||15|
|Chapter 4: Early DRDO–ISRO Collaboration||25|
|Chapter 5: Self-reliance in Solid Propellant Capability||31|
|Chapter 6: Propellant Development in HEMRL||51|
|Chapter 7: Rocket Motor Case||61|
|Chapter 8: Rocket Motors of Launch Vehicles||79|
|Chapter 9: IGMDP and other Motors of Missile Complex||125|
|Chapter 10: Composite Products||143|
|Chapter 11: Solid Propellant Rocket Motor Test Facilities||159|
|Chapter 12: Interface with Academia||173|
|Chapter 13: Industry Interaction||193|
About the Author
Professor Rajaram Nagappa is Head, International Strategic and Security Studies Programme, National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore. He holds a Bachelor’s degree in Science from Guwahati University and a Diploma of the Madras Institute of Technology in Aeronautical Engineering. His active years were spent at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram where he was responsible for the design, development and realisation of solid propellant motor systems for rockets and satellite launch vehicles of the Indian Space Research Organisation. He retired as the Associate Director of the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre.